This is a supplement to CRETO-SEMITICA
We can relate this nudu to Hebrew n’od or nôd, “skin bag” or “leather bottle”, and understand it as “wineskin” or “bottle of wine”. Young David took a “skin of wine” (n’od yayin) to King Saul (1 Samuel 16:20).
sipu: presumably “beer”, Akkadian sibu, “beer”, “brew”, Hbr. sobe’, “strong drink” (beer?).
su ki ri te i ya
. . . P157/AB123 . YA SA SA RA ME . U NA RU KA
AB123 BEER: this symbol seems to represent a beer mug with a strainer on top It also appears with suqare (sikr) “beer” in TL Za 1.
ZA 1 (Clay tablet from Zakros)
kroke: “your (ke?) receptacle” (Hebrew kli)?
kidemapina: Gordon and Best have WI for PI, but this sign is more likely to be representing a bee (PI); WI and PI occur together in KN Zc7; the kidem part has been recognized as “gold” (Hebrew ketem); another word for “gold” (refined, fine gold) is Hebrew paz, Aramaic piz, Ugaritic pd; if the NA were the similar ZA (‘ankh symbol) or DI (net), then we would have this; but pina could lead us to corals or pearls (Proverbs 31:10).
Knossos Zf 13 Gold Ring
this is a Semitic inscription, we need to remind ourselves that more
than two dozen consonants have to be accommodated in the Linear A
inventory with one dozen consonants.
Thus, R syllabograms cover R and L, while S serves for a range of sibilant sounds (S S. Sh Th), and the gutturals have to be ignored in transcription; P includes B, K embraces G, and so on. Here am I trying to prove that most Linear A inscriptions are West Semitic, and there are so many variables that my readings look illusory, like confidence tricks. The words are not separated by spaces or marks, but here is an attempt to find some, and make a coherent statement out of them.
ARE `al (The `ayin guttural is ignored, the L is represented by R, and the final -e should be treated as a "dead" vowel) "upon, about, by"
NESI (Hebrew nasi') "prince, leader, ruler"
DI (WS d) "of"
SOPI (Hbr. s.aba') "host, army"
KEPAYATARI (apparently lurking here is one of the names of Crete, that is, Kaptara, Egyptian Keftiu, Hebrew Kaphtor, named in the Bible as the previous home of the Philistians, and presumably also of the Kaptorians and Keretians; the YA in the middle is disconcerting; if it were misplaced from the end of the word it would produce an adjective, Kaptarian)
"By order of the leader of the army of Kaptar"For the rest, ITE could be 'et "with" or "the". MEA might be "100". RIME, perhaps from the root rwm, "be high". The final letter is probably U, though it may be AB34, which I transcribe as KRA, and here perhaps standing for QRA, the root qr' "call, summon, decree". I would like to get something like "supreme command" out of all this. YAKRA
Semitic inscriptions on offering-vessels
AP Za 1 Offering bowl
YA TA I SO U YA......
My offering is brought
AP ZA 2 Cylindrical jar
... NA SI . I PI NA MA . . . . . .I? KU PA NA TU NA TE
... PI MI NA TE . I NA YA RE TA . . . QA
IO Za <1> 1> Ladle
A YE SA
IO ZA 2 Offering table
A TA I SO WA YA . YA DI KI TU . YA SA SA RA [me . u na ka na] SI I PI NA MA .
SI RU TE . TA NA RA TE U TI NU . I DA . . . . . . . .
I bring my offering, O DN, and we shal lcertainly gather abundantly
IO Za 3 Offering table fragment
A TA I SO WA YA . AU (!) . . . . . . .
(au is a pig's head, possibly the offering, or perhaps pig-blood)
IO Za 4 Offering table fragment
... SO WA .......
IO Za 5 Votive ladle or lamp fragment
... I YA RE DI YA . I YA PA . . . . . .
IO Za 6 Bowl (c. 5 cm diameter) with petaliform rim
TA NA I SO U TI NU . I NA TA I ZU DI SI KA . YA SA SA RA ME
IO Za 7 Offering table fragment
A TA I SO WA YA . YA TI MO . . . . . (dmqt?)
I bring my offering, O DN
IO Za 8 Offering table fragment
A NA TI SO WA YA . . . .
I give my offering
IO Za 9 Offering table corner
. . . YA SA SA . . . . O DN
. . . U NA KA . . . and we shall gather
IO Za 11 Offering table fragment
>. . . NA [MI?] DA DA . . . .
. . . U TI NU . I NA I DA . . . <
IO Za 12 Offering table fragment
. . . YA SA || SA RA ME . I TI . . .
IO Za 13 Offering table fragment
. . . MA I . . .
IO Za 14 Offering table fragment
. . . RU TE . I DI . . .
IO Za 15 Offering table fragment
. . . I PI NA MA . SI RU . . .
IO Za 16 Offering table fragment
. . . PG 157/AB123 . YA SA SA RA ME . U NA RU KA (rt lqh.)
123 AROMAT ? This symbol seems to represent a beer mug with a strainer on top (cp. Philistian examples?). Reference books do not explain it. The one PG instance has mesh-lines on the top part. Is it equivalent to osuqare (shikr) 'beer' in TL Za 1? Yes, it has the same symbol, misread as the syllabogram O (an eye).
KN Za !0 Offering table fragments (restored)
. . . . TA NU MU TI . YA SA SA RA MA || NA . DA WA [MI?] DU WA MU? . I YA . . .
KN Za 17 Offering table fragment
YA QE .
KN Za 18 Offering table
... YA . . . . .YA . YA WA . . . . .
KN Za 19 Bowl fragment
KE YU MI (L to R)
A118 (DWO?) MI NA
KY Za 2 Ladle
DA MA TE Blood
PK Za 4 Stone cup fragment
A SA SA RA . . .
PK Za 8 Offering table
.. NU . BA E . YA DI KI TE TE . A307 (DWO?) BU RE . TU ME I
YA SA . . . . . . . U NA KA NA SI
I PI . . .
PK Za 9 Offering table pedestal
... YA U? PA? MA I DA SO DI . . .
PK Za 10 Offering table fragment
. . SI . I PI NA MI . SI . . .
PK Za 11 Offering table
A TA I SO WA E . A DI KI TE TE . DU?
PU? RE . PI TE RI . A KO A NE . A
SA SA RA ME . U NA RU KA NA TI .
I PI NA MI NA . SI RU DU? . I NA YA PA QA
PK Za 12 Offering table
A TA I SO WA YA . A DI KI TE . . . . . .
. . . SI RU . . . . . . RA ME
A . . . A NE . U NA RU KA NA YA SI .
A PA DU PA . . . . . . . . . . . . . YA . . . . . YA PA QA
PK ZA 14 Offering table fragment
. . . TU ME? I YA SA SA . . . . .
PK Za 15 Offering table fragment
. . . YA . YA DI KI TE TE KE? BU RE
PK Za 16 Offering table corner
. . . TO? SA . BU
. . . RE YA
PK Za 17 Offering table corner
. . . I DA . . . .
PK Za 18.Offering table fragment
. . . TE . I DA . YA YA . . . .
PK Za 20 Offering table fragment
. . . U NA KA . . .
PR Za 1 Stone box (offering receptacle)
TA NA SU TE [DA/RO] KE
SE TO I YA
A SA SA RA ME
PS Za 2 Offering table fragments
. . . -RE I/NO KE
TA NA NO/1 SO TI . . . . . . YA TI . YA SA SA RA ME .
SY Za 1 Offering table (circular)
A TA I SO WA YA . I DA MI . YA . . . . .
SY Za 2 Offering table
A TA I SO WA YA . YA SI MA TU OLIV
U NA KA NA SI OLE
I bring my offering, O DN, OLIVES, and we will gather OIL, indeed
SY Za 3 Offering table fragments (circular)
A TA I? SO WA . . . . SE? KA NA SI . TE? . . . . . SI RU TE
SY Za 4 Offering table (circular)
A TA I/NO SO WA YA . YA I NWA ZA | BA NI WI
SY Za 5 Offering table (circular)
. . . MI/RA YA . YA WA BA
SY Za 6 Offering table (circular)
DA SE/NO RA TE
SY Za 8 Offering table fragments (circular) (No 7)
. . . I SO WA YA . YA YA? (I/NO has 4 fingers and thumb)
SY Za 9 Offering table (circular)
YA PA RA YA SE?
SY Za 10 Offering table (circular)
QA SA RA KU
SY Za 11 Offering table (circular)
. . . QA RO/ZA (beer?)
SY Za 12 Offering table (circular)
A (just like Cyprian I-I-I = A)
TL Za 1 Ladle
A TA I/NO SO WA YA . BEER?/O SU QA RE . (NO PUPIL IN THE EYE)
YA SA SA RA ME . U NA KA NA SI
. . . NA MA . SI RU . . . .
I bring my offering, beer, O DN, and we shall certainly gather abundantly
VR Za 1 Offering table (corner)
I PI NA MA SI RU TE
The Minoans who produced these inscriptions were West Semites; and somehow, they became Eteocretans (though this connection may be a modern mistake); they were really Neo-Cretans, and their genetic heritage may still linger in the population.
It seems to me that some Linear A inscriptions are not Semitic, and an Anatolian language is present in them, and this is supported by personal names attested in documents (Margalit Finkelberg 1991, 79-84, L. Palmer 1965, Myceneans and Minoans)
Nanno Marinatos has produced a book (2010) in which she argues that “palatial Crete” (Bronze-Age Kaptar) belonged in the Near East, comprising Anatolia, Syria, the Levant, and Egypt. She quotes Evans at the head of her Introduction: “Throughout its course Minoan civilization continued to absorb elements from the Asiatic side”. Marinatos reminds us that Kothar, the West Semitic god of arts and crafts, had his abode in Kaptar (and he was also at home in Egyptian Memphis, as Ptah, and perhaps in Mesopotamia as Heyan, if that is Ea/Enki). Accordingly, Marinatos proposes a religious koine of the Mediterranean world, and if Minoan religion was West Semitic, like the Minoan language, then she must be right. Deities and details of the religion have been set aside here, but there is no doubt that the West Semitic pantheon can be found in the Kaptarian documents.
The possibility that one person could handle all these writing systems seems preposterous, and so the reader may justly be suspicious of what has been presented here; but this is the summation of sixty years of research on the scripts of the Mediterranean world. My desire is to give notification of all this before my time is up, and try to move the material from my websites into permanent print.
’(Aleph) H (Het, H., guttural) K (Kh, palatal fricative) T. (Tet) ‘(Ayin) S (Samek, Sin) Ç (Sadey, ts, ss) S (Shin) T (Th).
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